【翻译】简单解读Filecoin白皮书

Simplifying the Filecoin Whitepaper

简单解读Filecoin白皮书

By:Robert Greenfield IV

翻译:冰青

Here we’ll quickly breakdown what filecoin is and the system’s consensus protocol, potential vulnerabilities, and projected future state — all straight from the whitepaper in a way we can understand!

本文将简明条理的为大家解读Filecoin是什么,以及Filecoin的共识协议,潜在问题和未来的可能性。所有的内容都直接来自于Filecoin白皮书,并尽可能以大家都能理解的方式来解读。

You can have access to my annotated version of the white paper here — with notes included!

你可以进入这个链接,里面有filecoin的白皮书以及本文作者的注释。

What is Filecoin?

Filecoin是什么?

 

Filecoin is a decentralized storage network that turns cloud storage into an algorithmic market. The market runs on a blockchain with a native protocol token (also called “Filecoin”), which miners earn by providing storage to clients. Essentially, filecoin is the airbnb of data storage — a peer to peer based exchange that accepts asks and bids to settle decentralized data storage transactions on blockchain.

FIlecoin是一个去中心化的储存网络,其令云储存成为一个基于算法的市场。这个市场运行在区块链上并具有原生的通证“Filecoin”,矿工们通过向客户提供储存来挣取通证。实际上,Filecoin颇似数据储存上的爱彼迎——一种点对点的,基于区块链的,通过撮合买卖方需求来解决去中心化数据储存交易的市场。

Filecoin works as an incentive layer on top of IPFS, which can provide storage infrastructure for any data. It is especially useful for decentralizing data, building and running distributed applications, and implementing smart contracts.

Filecoin是IPFS的顶端激励层,作为承载数据储存的基础,擅长于为去中心化数据提供储存服务,并为搭建、运行分布式应用以及架构智能合约提供相应平台

Filecoin System Basics

Filecoin系统基础

 

There are 3 types of entities in the Filecoin system:

在Filecoin系统中有三种个体:

·Client — Pay to store data and to retrieve data in the DSN, via Put and Get requests

·用户——为在分布式储存网络中发布数据储存和数据检索要求以及上传、取回文件的行为支付资金(一般是Filecoin)。

·Miner — Storage Miners provide data storage to the network. Storage Miners participate in Filecoin by offering their disk space and serving Put requests. To become Storage Miners, users must pledge their storage by depositing collateral proportional to it.

·(储存)矿工——在网络中提供数据储存服务,储存矿工通过提供闲置的储存空间与接受用户的储存要求来参与到Filecoin的挖矿过程。成为Filecoin矿工必须提供储存空间并抵押和储存空间大小相对应的Filecoin。

·Retrieval Miner — Retrieval Miners provide data retrieval to the Network. Retrieval Miners participate in Filecoin by serving data that users request via Get. Unlike Storage Miners, they are not required to pledge, commit to store data, or provide proofs of storage.

·检索矿工——检索矿工在网络中提供数据的检索与取回服务,检索矿工通过接受用户的检索请求和取回文件请求来参与到Filecoin的挖矿过程。不同于储存矿工,他们不需要提供储存空间和抵押Filecoin,也不需要接受数据的储存并提供储存证明。

Clients pay a network of miners for data storage and retrieval; miners offer disk space and bandwidth in exchange of payments. Miners receive their payments only if the network can audit that their service was correctly provided.

用户在网络中为数据的储存和检索向矿工支付费用;作为交换,矿工通过提供储存空间和带宽来获得报酬。矿工只有在他们提供的服务通过网络的审查后才能获得报酬。

Filecoin Consensus Protocol

Filecoin共识协议

Filecoin1

可信市场协议

匹配订单:

1、交易双方将“购买(空间)”订单和“出售(空间)”订单加入到公共账本中。

2、当两种订单匹配成功后,参与交易双方创建“成交”订单,成交订单将承诺交易双方进行交换(数据和通证),同时该订单将向全网广播并加入到公共账本中。

达成交易:

3、网络将通过要求服务提供者对其服务或数据传输生成正确的加密证明(时空证明与复制证明等)来确保数据交换或者服务的安全。

4、当交易完成后,网络将发送用户的付款并将订单从公共账本中移除。

 

·The Filecoin protocol is a Decentralized Storage Network construction built on a blockchain and with a native token. DSNs aggregte storage ordered by multiple independent storage providers and self-coordinate to provide data storage and data retrieval to clients.

·Filecoin是基于区块链构建的一个去中心化的储存网络,并附有原生的通证。分布式储存网络收集由不同个体提交的数据交易请求,同时撮合交易以向用户提供数据储存与检索服务。

·Filecoin is a protocol token whose blockchain uses a novel proof, called Proof-of-Spacetime, where blocks are created by miners that are storing data.

·Filecoin是该区块链的原生通证,此链以一种新颖的共识方式“时空证明”,令矿工在储存数据时挖掘区块。

·Provides a data storage and retrieval service via a network of independent storage providers that does not rely on a single coordinator, where: (1) clients pay to store and retrieve data, (2) Storage Miners earn tokens by offering storage (3) Retrieval Miners earn tokens by serving data.

·数据服务提供者(检索与下载)在网络中独立承担数据储存与检索服务,不依赖于任何组织或其他个体。其中:(1)用户为储存和检索数据支付费用;(2)储存矿工通过提供数据储存服务赚取通证;(3)检索矿工通过提供数据检索服务赚取通证。

·Uses Proof-of-Replication (PoRep), a novel Proof-of-Storage which allows a server (i.e. the prover P) to convince a user (i.e. the verifier V) that some data D has been replicated to its own uniquely dedicated physical storage, and Proof-of-Spacetime, where a verifier can check if a prover is storing her/his outsourced data for a range of time.

·通过复制证明,一种新颖的储存证明,令数据服务提供者说服用户相信数据已经被复制到了服务提供者独一无二物理储存设备上,而时空证明令用户可以检查服务提供者是否在一段时间内持续储存好某个数据。

·Filecoin mining power (amount of data stored per miner) is proportional to active storage

·Filecoin挖矿的能源消耗(每个矿工储存的数据量)与网络中的活跃数据(交换、检索、储存、下载的数据)成正比。

Filecoin Usability

Filecoin的用户可操作性

 

·Clients can select replication parameters to protect against different threat models.

·用户可以选择复制文件(即存储到矿工手里的文件)的相关参数,以保护文件免受可能的攻击风险。

·Clients can eventually retrieve data from miners

·用户可以从矿工处检索、取回完整的数据。

Potential Vulnerabilities

潜在攻击性

 

·Sybil Attacks: Malicious miners could pretend to store (and get paid for) more copies than the ones physically stored by creating multiple Sybil identities, but storing the data only once.

·女巫攻击恶意矿工可以假装从一份已储存的数据中,再复制多个备份并储存(且获得相应的额外报酬)并提供储存证明,但实际上其只储存了一份数据。

·Outsourcing Attacks: Malicious miners could commit to store more data than the amount they can physically store, relying on quickly fetching data from other storage providers.

·外包攻击:恶意矿工可以通过储存超额数据,高于其实际所能储存的数据量,来获得额外收益。为此恶意矿工通常需要从其他储存矿工处取用数据以生成储存证明。

·Generation Attacks: Malicious miners could claim to be storing a large amount of data which they are instead a ciently generating on-demand using a small program. If the program is smaller than the purportedly stored data, this inflates the malicious miner’s likelihood of winning a block reward in Filecoin, which is proportional to the miner’s storage currently in use.

·替代攻击:恶意矿工可以声称其储存了大量的数据,但数据并非原有数据,而是由其他程序生成的替代数据。如果程序和生成的数据小于原本应当储存的数据,那么恶意矿工赢得Filecoin区块奖励的可能性会增大,这个可能性与矿工最近储存的数据量成正比。

·Deals are time-boxed and become invalid — but malicious clients could DDOs specified miners and hold their storage up for (ts — now) periods of time indefinitely…

·(接受)交易具有时限,超过时限将视为失效。恶意矿工可以DDOS攻击指定的矿工以令其交易接受时间无限延长(即无法正常接受交易),以此来获得该矿工本应接受的订单。

·Given that clients will essentially need to strategize as to how many pieces they’re bidding to be assigned to m number of sectors AND that those pieces need to be encrypted — there seems a need for something to help manage bids and data encryption before transacting on such a network

·用户发起储存需求后,需要对储存文件应当分片为多少份制定相应计划并为每一部分指定编号,同时这些分片都需要单独加密——因此网络对交易发起和信息传输前的数据协助加密是有必要的(而Filecoin似乎没有做到这一点)

·Level of encryption and sharding of data is somewhat undescribed — seems like clients can opt to store their data in one place by just bidding for one piece (instead of breaking up their data into multiple pieces)

·白皮书对加密等级和数据分片的某些方面表达不清——客户端似乎可以选择在一个地方只储存一个分片(而不是把数据分片再复制多份储存)。

 

Leftover Inquiries

一些小疑问

 

·Is there any guarantee of zero storage faults given a certain amount of requested replicas?

·Filecoin通过设定一定数量的文件(分片)备份,能否避免零储存错误?

·Is the collateral necessary to become a storage miner the filecoin token as well? If so, how is it initially obtained given token sale limitations? Will investors that have filecoin naturally select to transact on the network?

·通过抵押Filecoin来成为储存矿工是否合理?如果是的话,在早期通证分发不全时,如何保证矿工能获得通证?拥有Filecoin的投资人会愿意自发的选择在Filecoin网络上传输通证么?

·How is the piece (data storage request) transacted, are there size limits to how big a piece can be? Isn’t it dangerous to put one piece on a sector (data storage miner space) at all — even if it’s encrypted?

·文件分片(储存请求发送时)是如何传输的?对于每个分片的大小有限制么?如果将一个分片只存储在储存矿工硬盘的一个扇区里,即使分片被加密,分片是否真的足够安全(有扇区损坏的风险)?

·When sectors are sealed (closed due to inadequate leftover space on the storage drive), where is the replica stored?

·当硬盘的扇区被锁定(由于磁盘剩余空间不足导致扇区关闭不予读写)时,分片的复制会被储存在哪?

·Are network assignments of pieces to sectors random?

·网络是随机分配分片储存到磁盘扇区中么?

·Are clients storing the hash of their data in another database, given that they might have billions of pieces given the size of each piece and assignment?

·考虑到用户上传文件的大小与分片数量可能数以亿计,用户是否可以选择将其(上传文件)的哈希值储存在其他的数据库中?

·What type of computational resource does being a Retrieval Miner entail?

·检索矿工使用哪种方式检索资源?

·Where is the off-chain orderbook held and can this be altered?

·离线账本(即储存在本地的文件目录与交易数据)储存在何处?可以更改(并被在线公共账本承认)么?

 

Potential Future State and Application Stack

Filecoin的未来

 

·Off chain settlements could incorporate the fee-less structure/support of IOTA tangle at scale

·(Filecoin作为)链下方案,可以具有减少交易手续费和提高IOTA缠结可扩展性两大功能。

·Potential to create smart contract based APIs that work within the specified Filecoin put framework (querying encrypted data even)

·具有基于Filecoin框架的API构建智能合约的潜力(甚至可以调用查询已加密数据)。

·Potential of Filecoin blockchain being the decentralized off chain storage of other blockchains like bitcoin

·Filecoin区块链具有作为其他链上项目(比如比特币)拓展链下储存的潜力。

·Could even call smart contracts in storage and execute on another blockchain like ethereum to avoid gas fees…

·未来甚至可以从储存的文件中直接调用智能合约并在其他区块链项目(如以太坊)上运行以避免(链上合约运行的)手续费。

参考文献:

Simplifying the Filecoin Whitepaper.  Robert Greenfield IV.  Medium

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